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This is chocolate with at least 31 % fat content.

The fat content can vary according to

the desired use for the couverture:

Thick flowing couverture              32 to 34 %

Couverture for covering goods     36 to 37 %

Couverture for moulding              38 to 40 %


A distinction is made between patisserie fondant

and confectioners fondant.The difference lies in the fact

that patisserie fondant is not boiled to such a high degree

and the re-crystalisation is hindered by the addition of glucose.

Confiserie fondant is boiled to a higher degree and treated with

cream of tartar powder and a smaller addition of glucose.

Fondant made using the cream of tartar produces softer melting

interiors,for the fondant then is less tough than the patisserie

fondant which has the higher proportion of glucose.


Praline mass is a composition of roasted

almonds or hazelnuts and melted sugar.


Marzipan is a mixture of sugar and almonds,it can

be flavoured with couverture,almost any spirit etc…


Ganache is a chocolate filling of cream,

couverture and butter.

Gianduya / Gianduja

Gianduya is a composition of roast almonds or

hazelnuts, icing sugar and couverture or cocoa butter.

Nougat (croquant)

Nougat is a combination of melted sugar

and flake or ground almonds.

Cocoa Butter

Is the fat yielded by the pressing of the cocoa mass.

Uses:To thin couverture,in the production of gianduya,

praline mass and fillings to have a long shelf life.

Cocoa Powder

This is the finely ground pressed cake which appears as

the cocoa butter is pressed out.Minimum fat content 20 %

Sweetened cocoa powder is a mixture of cocoa powder and sugar.

Sugar content maximum 68 %.Uses:To roll pralines into it,

(kirsch sticks,truffles,etc.).

Chocolate Powder

Is pulverized chocolate with a minimum of 16 % cocoa butter content.

Invert Sugar (Trimoline)

Consists of a mixture of equal proportions of laevulose

and fructose which occurs during the break-down of saccharose

by the action of acid or enzyme.Invert sugar is

found in industry as a thick flowing syrup.

Glucose (Glucose syrup)

This is used in the form of a tough,thick-flowing liquid

produced from glucose syrup or starch glucose.

It hinders the sugar(saccharose) recrystalisation in

sugar goods (bonbons),as a softening agent

in fondants and to increase the smoothness of edible ice.


Cointreau:From a distillation of orange peel.

Grand Marnier:From a distillation of oranges with cognac.

Cherry-Brandy:is a liqueur of cherry juice produced by soaking cherries in alcohol.


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